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THE COVENANT OF CALIPH OMAR WITH THE PEOPLE OF JERUSALEM

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Compassionate

This is the assurance of safety that the servant of Allah. ‘Umar, Commander of the Faithful, has granted to the people of Iliya (Jerusalem).

• He has given them assurance of safety for their lives and property, for their churches and their crosses, for their sick and their healthy, and for all the rituals of their religion.
• Their churches shall not be used as dwellings, nor shall they be demolished, and nothing shall be diminished – neither their churches nor the estates thereof, nor their crosses nor any part of their property.
• They shall not be coerced in matters pertaining to their religion and none of them shall be harmed.
• No Jew shall live with them in Iliya.
• The people of Iliya shall pay the poll tax just as the people of Madayeen do.
• They shall expel the Romans and the robbers from therein. Those of them (to with, the Romans) who leave shall have security for their lives and property until they reach their place of safety. And those [Romans] who stay with them (i.e. the people of Iliya), shall also be secure. They shall pay the same poll tax as the people of Iliya do.

Romans, leaving behind their churches and crosses, shall have security for their lives and their churches and their crosses until they reach their place of safety.
• The natives who were living there (i.e. Iliya) before the killing of so and so, if they so desire they might stay. (in which case) they shall pay the poll tax just as the people of Iliya do. And if anyone desires to leave with the Romans he may do so, and if anyone wishes to return to his family he may also do so.
• No poll tax shall be taken from them until their crops are harvested.
• If they pay the poll tax, they have – according to the conditions mentioned in this document – the covenant of Allah and the protection of his prophet and the guarantee of the caliphs and the believers.

Khalid bin Walid, Amr ibn al-Aas, Abd al-Rahman ibn Awf and Muawiyah ibn Abi Sufyan were witness to this (covenant). Written and negotiated in the 15th year (of Hijrah) [CE638]

[Source: Annales at-Tabari]

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