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THE EARLY SCIENCES

T“For many centuries, Islamic civilisation fostered cultural and scientific advances on a scale unparalleled since ancient times. Islamic scholars assimilated the ancient lore of Persia and India and the classical heritage of Greece, preserving and translating manuscripts in centres of learning as widespread as Baghdad (Iraq) and Cordoba (Spain). Not only did they preserve the legacy of Western civilisation through Europe’s “Dark Ages,” but they also made significant contributions of their own in virtually every field. Islamic scholars discovered logarithms and devised the decimal system. They made original discoveries in geometry and trigonometry, and they invented algebra—itself an Arabic word.

In medicine, Muslims systematised the existing body of scientific knowledge, demonstrated circulation of the blood, developed the theory of optics, and published the first clinical account of smallpox. Two medieval Muslim physicians—Ibn Sina (Avicenna) and Ibn Rushd (Averroes)—were considered by East and West alike to be the ultimate medical authorities until modern times. Muslim interest in astronomy stemmed from the need to fix times of prayer and the direction of Makkah. Muslim astronomers developed the quadrant and astrolabe, made star charts, and were the first to use the magnetic needle in navigation. Muslim architects excelled in the technique of vaulting, and their monuments provided the inspiration for some of Europe’s Gothic cathedrals. By the sixteenth century, Islamic civilisation was among the most widespread and important civilisations on earth.” [http://www.amideast.org/offices/kuwait/saud/islamic_civilization.htm]

MUSLIM SCIENTISTS

Abu Musa Jabir ibn Hayyan,
CE721-815) Known as the Father of Chemistry; credited with The Book of the Composition of Alchemy.

Al-Asmaal, d. 827                               
Kitab al-Khail (On the Horse); Kitab al-Ibil (On the Camel)

Ibn Khurdadhbih, d. 846,                   
First edition of his el-Masalic wa al-Mamalik (Book of Routes and Kingdoms in Asia; geography based on itinerary of Arabic postal services)

Al-Khwarizmi, d. 850,                        
Hisab al-Jabar wa al-Muqabalah (The calculation of Integration and Equation); when Algebra originated; Surat al-Ard (Image of the World), with a map of the world and heavens; astronomical tables. Mafatih al-Ulum (The Keys of the Sciences), a classification of sciences.

Al Tabari d. 850,                                
Firdaus al-Hikmah (Paradise of Wisdom), a compendium of medicine

Yuhanna ibn-Masawayh d. 857          
Daghal al-Ain (Disorder of the Eye), oldest extant systematic treatise on ophthalmology in Arabic

Muhammad Agmad and Hasan d. 860           
Book of Artifices the earliest extant treatise on mechanics.

Hunayn                                              
Al-Ashr Maqalat fi al-Ayn (The Ten Treatises on the Eye), translated into Arabic from Greek of scientific works by Aristotle, Euclid, Galen and Hippocrates

Al-Yaqabi d. 891                                
Kitab al-Buldan (Book of the Countries),

Al-Battani, d. 900                               
Zij (Astronomy)

Ibn al-Faqih, d. 903                            
Kitab al-Buldan (Book of the Countries), Persian geographical compilation

Abu Zaid d. 920                               
Akhbar al-Sin wa al-Hind (Information about China and India), edition of accounts by Arab traveler

Ibn Fedian d. 921                               
An account of his journey to the Bulgars, in Russia.

Al Razi d. 925                                     
Kitab al- Judari wa al-Hasbah (On Small pox and Measles); al-Hawi (medical compendium in 20 volumes); Kitab al-Asrar (The Book of Secrets), on alchemy

Al-Israil, d. 932                                  
Kitab al-Humayyat (Treatise on fever); Kitab al-Baul (Treatise on Urine)

Al-Istakhri                                         
Masalik wa al-Mamalik, geography, with maps

Al-Masudi, d. 956                               
Muruj al-Shahab wa Maadin al-Jawhar (Meadows of (known as Herodotus of Arabs)  Gold and Mines of Gems, a historico-geographical encyclopaedia, it gives the earliest known description of windmills (In Sijistan, Persia) and mentions horse-racing and tennis.

Abu Mansur Muwaflaq, d. 975          
The Foundations of the True Properties of Remedies, in Persian and describes 585 drugs

Al- Maqdisi, d. 985,                            
Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Maarifat al-Aqalim (The Best of Classification for the Knowledge of Regions), description of his travels in Islamic countries of the Middle East

Al-Sufi, d. 986,                                   
Kitab al-Kawakib al-Thabitah (Book of the Fixed Stars), his astronomical observations.

Ibn al- Nadim, d. 988,                         
Index of Sciences, catalogue of Arabic works.

Ali ibn al-Abbas, d. 994,                     
Kamil al-Sina al-Tibbiyah (The Whole Medical Art), Persian encyclopaedia of medicine known in Latin as Liber Regius

Alk Warrang, d. 995,                          
Fihrist al-Ulum (Index of the Sciences), bibliographical compilation on all branches of knowledge.

Al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), d. 1013,         
Al-Tasrif li-Man an al-Taalif, medical vade-mecum, which includes the first ever medical treatise on surgery

Ibn Sina (Avicenna), d.1037                
Al Qanun fi al-Tibb (The Canon of Medicine), encyclopaedia codifying Greco-Arabic medical learning.

Ali al-Hasan (Alhazen), d. 1039         
Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics)

Ahmad al-Nasawi, d. 1040                  
Al-Muqni fi al-Hisab al-Hindi (The Convincer on Hindu Calculation), on fractions, square and cubic roots, using Hindi numerals.

Al Biruni (The Master), d. 1048           
Taarikh al-Hind (History of India)

Al-Andalusi, d. 1070                           
Tabagat al-Umam (Classification of Nations)

Al-Zarqali Arzachel, d. 1087              
Toledon Tables, an astronomical and geographical treatise on an astrolabe of his invention

Nasir al-Khusro, d. 1088                   
Safarnama, a diary of travels in Syria, Egypt, Arabia and Asia

Al-Bakri, d. 1094                                
Kitab al-Masalic wa al-Mamalik (The Book of Roads and Kingdoms), the earliest surviving geographical work by a Spanish Muslim.

Al-Khazini, d. 1121                            
Kitab Mizan al-Hikmah (Book of Balance of Widsom), on mechanics, hydrostatics and physics; argues a theory of gravity towards the centre of the earth

Al-Jurjani, d. 1135                             
Zakhira al-Khwarizmshahi (The Treasure of the King of Khwarizm), immense medical encyclopaedia in Persian)

Al Mazini, d. 1136     
Tuhfat al-Albab wa Nukhbat al-Ajaaib (Gift to the Heart and Choice of Wonders), a world geography describing peoples, spirits, creatures and fossils

Al-Khariqi, d. 1138                            
Muntaha al-Idrak fi Taqsim al-Aflak (The Highest Understanding on the Division of Spheres)

Jabir ibn Aflah, d. 1145                                 
Kitab al Hayah (Book of Astronomy), includes a chapter on trigonometry

Al-Tifashi, d. 1154                                           
An Egyptian mineralogist who wrote Flowers of Knowledge of Precious Stones               

Al-Edrisi, d. 1154                               
Al-Kitab al-Rujari (Roger’s Books), a description of the World, the most elaborate in medieval times with maps (Both for Roger II of Sicily)

Ibn Rushd (Averroes), d. 1160                    
Kitab al-Kulliyat fi al-Tibb (Generalities of medicine), an encyclopaedia

Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), d. 1162                      
Kitab al-Taysir fi al-Mudawah wa al-Tadbir (Book of Simplification concerning Therapeutics and Diet)

Al-Ghafiqi, d. 1165                                          
Kitab al- Adwiyah al-Mufradah, on simples

Ibn-Jubayr, d.1185                                          
Rahlat al-Kitani, an account of his journey from Grenada during the Middle East in 1183-85

Ibn al-Awwam, d. 1200                      
Al-Filahah, treatise on agriculture, which describes 585 plants

Al-Bitruji (Alpetragius), d. 1204          
Kitab al-Hayah (The Book of Astronomy)

Al Jazari, d. 1206                               
Treatises on mechanics and clocks

Yaqut, d. 1229                                    
Mujam al-Buldan, a geography dictionary

Al-Baytar, d. 1248                              
Kitab al-Jami (Collections of Simple Drugs), lists 1,400 drugs of great botanical value]

Al-Qifti, d. 1248                                 
Ikhbar al-Ulama bi-Akhbar al-Hukama (History of Philosophers); biographies of 414 Greek, Syrian and Islamic physicians, astronomers and philosophers

Ibn Abi Osaibiyah, d. 1270                 
Uyun al-Anba fi Tabaqat al-Atibba, valuable information on the classes of physicians, biographies of some 600 Arab physicians

Al-Qazini, d. 1283                              
Ajaib al-Makhluqat wa Gharaib al-Mawjudat (Marvels of created things and their singularities), cosmographical encyclopaedia, Ajaib al-Buldan (Marvels of the Countries), geographical encyclopaedia

Ibn al-Nafis, d. 1288                           
Kitab Mujiz al-Qanun (Commentary on the Canon of Medicine of Avicenna and includes a theory of the circulation of the blood)

Al Dimyati, d. 1306                            
Fadl al-Khail (The Excellence of the Horse),

Al-Shirazi, d. 1311                            
Nihayat al-Idrak fi Dirayat al-Aflak (Highest Understanding of the Knowledge of Spheres)

Rashid, d. 1318                                   
Jami al-Tasaanif al-Rashidi, an encyclopaedia of Chinese medicine

Al-Farisi, d. 1320                               
Tanqih al-Manazur (Correction of the Optics)

Abul Fida, d. 1321                              
Taqwim al-Buldan (Table of Countries), geography of Asia

Hamdallah Mustawfi, d. 1340           
Nuzhat al-Qulub (Delight of the Hearts), Persian encyclopaedia of cosmography and science

Al-Baytar, d. 1340                              
Kami al-Sina Atayn (Treatise on veterinary medicine)

Al-Umri, d. 1348                                
Masalic al-Absar (Voyages of the Eyes), a geographical and historical compilation on Muslim lands including Abyssinia and Mali

Ibn-Battutah, d. 1354                        
Tuhfat al-Nuzzar (Gift to Observers), dealing with the Curiosities of cities and Wonders of Journeys)

Al-Damiri, d. 1372                             
Kitab al-Hayat al-Haywan (The Lives of Animals), encyclopaedia of animals, real and mythical, the greatest Zoological work in Arabic

Ibn al-Khatib, d. 1374                        
On Plague of Grenada

Al-Abbas al-Rasuli, d. 1376                
Sultan of Yemen, Bugbhat al-Fallahin (The desired book of peasants on useful trees and aromatic plants

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