Close

THE EMPIRES AND DYNASTIES

THE UMAYYAD CALIPHATE (Syria) – CE661-750

Muawaiyah bin Abu Sufiyan founded the Umayyad caliphate in CE661 after the short-lived Caliphate of Hasan, the Prophet’s grandson. He was the governor of Syria under the third Caliph Othman.

The Umayyads ruled for 92 years from their capital Damascus until the reign of Marwan bin Muhammad in CE750. They were overthrown by the Abbasids. Six years later, an Umayyad prince escaping persecution at the hands of Abbasids founded an Umayyad kingdom in Cordoba, Spain. This western branch, which became very prosperous, lasted till 1031.

NOTED CALIPHS

Muawiyah              661-680

Yazid I                      680-683

Muawiyah II          683-684

Marwan I                684-685

Abdul Malik           685-705

Al-Walid                 705-715

Suleiman                715-717

Omar ibn Aziz       717-720

Yazid II                    720-724

Hisham                    724-743

Al-Walid II             743-744

Yazid III                  744-744

Ibrahim                   744-744

Marwan II              744-750

THE ABASSID CALIPHATE (Iraq) – 750-1258

Abu Abbas founded the Abbasid caliphate in CE750. The Abbasids, the descendants of al-Abbas, uncle of the Prophet, ruled for half-a-millennium, one of Islam’s most enduring dynasties. The Abbasid era came to end with the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols in CE1258. The caliphate reached its zenith in the reign of Harun al-Rashid. Though the Abbasid powers of governance ended in CE945, when their political authority passed into the hands of the Buyids and later the Turkish Sultans, the Seljuks, they continued to exercise spiritual powers.

NOTED CALIPHS

Abu Abbas                 750-754

Al-Mansur                754-775

Al-Mehadi                 775-785

Al-Hadi                      785-786

Harun al-Rashid      786-809

Al-Ameen                  809-813

Al-Ma’mun               813-833

Al-Mu’tasim             833-842

Al-Wathiq                 842-847

Al-Mitawakkil          847-861

Al-Mutasir                861-862

Al-Munstain             862-866

Al-Mu’tazz                866-869

Al-Muqtadi               869-870

Al-Mutamid              870-892

Al-Mutadid               892-902

Al-Muqtafi                902-908

Al-Muqtadir             908-932

Al-Qahir                    932-934

Al-Rad                        934-940

Al-Muttaqi                940-944

Al-Mustaqfi              944-946

Al-Muti                      946-974

Al-Tai                         974-991

Al-Qadir                    991-1031

Al-Qaim                     1031-1075

Al-Muqtadi               1075-1094

Al-Mustazhir            1094-1118

Al-Mustarshid          1118-1135

Al-Rashid                  1135-1136

Al-Muqtafi                1136-1160

Al-Mustanjid            1160-1170

Al-Mustadi                1170-1180

Al-Nasir                     1180-1225

Al-Zahir                     1225-1226

Al-Mustansir            1226-1242

Al-Mustansim          1242-1258

THE BUYID DYNASTY  (945-1055)

The Buyids were Daylamis, a Turkic people settled around the Caspian Sea. They were Shiites of the Zaidi branch. In 945, under Ahmed Buyid’s command, they invaded Mesopotamia (Iraq) and occupied Baghdad. The caliph declared Buyid “Frontier of the Empire” (Muizz al-Dawlah). The Buyids remained the de facto rulers till the coming of the Seljuk Turks. During the reign of Ahmed, the Buyids enjoyed a position of strength. After his death, hostilities broke out between his brothers and one of them Adud al-Dawlah emerged victorious. After his death in 983, the Buyid dynasty broke up and finally gave way to the Seljuks in CE1055.

NOTED RULERS

Amadud Dawlah                  945-949

Raknud Dawlah                   949-977

Adadud Dawlah                    977-986

Samsamud Dawlah             983-986

Sharafud Dawlah                 986-989

Bahud Dawlah                      989-1011

Sultanud Dawlah                 1011-1020

Sharafud Dawlah                 1020-1025

Jalalud Dawlah                    1025-1043

Abukalinjar                          1043-1048

Malakur Rahim                    1048-1055

SELJUK DYNASTY – Iraq (1038-1194) 

The Seljuks, scions of a Turkish chieftain of the same name, joined the Qara-Khanids at Bukhara where their influence grew. Two brothers, Tughril Beg Muhammad and Chaghri Beg Daud, wrested Khurasan from the Ghaznavids Masud in CE1040. They deported his descendants to India. They also occupied central and western Persia, drove out the Buyids, and ultimately in 1055, destroyed the 110-year old Buyid hegemony over the Abbasid caliphate, and occupied Baghdad. With the coming of the Seljuks, a new institution, the Sultanate was created. Caliph Qaim gave Tughril the title of “King of the East and West” and delegated the running of the Sultanate to him. Thus, the political unity of the Abbasids was re-established under the Seljuks. The reign of Malik Shah-I (1072-92), who succeeded his father Alp Arslan, marked the fullest expansion of Seljuk power. Under the fourth Sultan Berkyaruk (1094-1104), the empire began to weaken with many princes acquiring autonomous power. Though they dealt effectively with Byzantine power in the early years, during the 12th century they were unable to save off the Crusaders. The last Seljuk Sultan, Tughril II, was defeated and killed at Ray in 1194 by Khwasaju Shah.

NOTED RULERS

Tughril Beg               1038-1063

Alp Arslan                 1063-1072

Malik Shah-I             1072-1092

Mahmood                 1092-1094

Berkyaruk                 1094-1104

Malid Shah-II           1104-1105

Muhammad              1105-1118

Sanjar                        1118-1157

Note: The dynasty continued through petty princes till 1194

SAUDI DYNASTY – Saudi Arabia (1730-till date)

The Saudi dynasty was founded by Muhammad bin Saud. Earlier Muhammad bin Saud was the emir of Dariya. Later, with the help of the great Islamic reformer, Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab, he spread his influence over much lf the Arabian Peninsula.

NOTED RULERS

The First Period

Muhammad bin Saud                     1730-1765

Abdul Aziz bin Mohammad           1765-1803

Saud bin Abdul Aziz                        1803-1814

Abdullah bin Saud                           1814-1818

The Second Period

Abdul Aziz (ibn Saud)                     1902-1953

Saud bin Abdul Aziz                         1953-1964

Faisal bin Abdul Aziz                       1964-1975

Khalid bin Abdul Aziz                      1975-1982

Fahd bin Abdul Aziz                        1982-2005

Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz                 2005-2015

Salman bin Abdul Aziz                    2015-till date

THE FATIMID CALIPHATE – Egypt           (909-1171)

Abu Abdallah Hudain destroyed the kingdom of the Aghlabids in 909 CE and founded the Fatimid dynasty. He made Ubaidallah as Mahdi (the hidden imam). The Mahdi had Abu Abdallah Hussain and built a capital called Mahdiyan in Tunisia. In 969 CE, under al-Muizz, the Fatmids conquered Egypt and the capital shifter to Cairo. The Fatimid rulers called themselves caliphs, thus laying claim to political and spiritual supremacy in Islam. They were Ismailis, an off-shoot of the Shiites. Under Muizz, the Fatimid empire extended into Arabia, Syria and north Africa, though they could not conquer the whole Muslim world. During the 58-year reign of Mustansir––the longest in Muslim history––the Fatimids declined. Finally, the Seljuk Turks, ended their hopes of a universal empire.

NOTED RULERS

Al-Mahdi                   909-934

Al-Qain                      934-945

Al-Mansur                945-952

Al-Aziz                       952-975

Al-Hakim                  996-1021

Al-Zahir                     1021-1036

Al-Mustansir            1036-1094

Al-Mustadi                1094-1101

Al-Amir                     1101-1130

Al-Hafiz                     1130-1149

Al-Zafir                      1149-1154

Al-Faiz                       1154-1160

Al-Abid                      1160-1171

AYYUBID DYNASTY – Egypt (1171-1250)

The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Salah ad-Din Ayyubi, popularly known as Saladin in the West. He was in the military service of Nur ad-Din, the emir of Syria and succeeded his uncle Shirukh, the Wazir of the Nile valley, in 1169. After consolidating his position, Salah ad-Din had the name of the Abbasid caliph Mustadi read in the khutba in 1171, replacing the Shiite Abid, the last Fatimid. After Nur ad-Din’s death the title of Sultan was conferred on him by the caliph. The Ayyubid dynasty extended from Tunisia to the mountains of Armenia, including parts of Yemen. It continued for nearly 60 years after the death of Salah ad-Din in 1193. The empire ended in the West at the hands of the Mamluks and in Syria it was overrun by the Mongols.

NOTED RULERS

Salah ad-Din             1171-1193

Malik al-Aziz             1193-1198

Malik al-Adil             1198-1218

Malik al-Kamil         1218-1238

Malik al-Adil II         1238-1240

Malik al-Saleh          1240-1249

Turna Shah               1249-1250

BAHRI DYNASTY (Egypt) – 1259-1382

After the downfall of the Ayyubids, the Bahri Mamluks (slave troops) seized power under the Commander Kutuz. They were called Bari Mamliks because their barracks were on the islands of Radah in the River Nile (Bahr al-Nil). The Mamluks defeated the Mongols in a decisive battle, which stopped the westward march of the Mongols forever in 1260 at Ain Jalut in Palestine. Baybers succeeded Kituz, and became one of the great figures in Muslim history. During his reign, the Mamluk system of government was finalised in Egypt. Two years after his death in 1277, has son, while on an expedition to Asia Minor against the Mongols, was ousted.

His successor, Qalaun (1279-1290), was famous as a conqueror of the remaining crusader foothold along the Syrian coast and as organiser of the Mamluk army. The next four generations were his own descendants. One of these, al-Malik al-Nasir, who came to the throne in 1293, as a child, reigned till 1341 and gave the country a relatively stable government after beating both the Persian Mongols and putting down a rebellion in upper Egypt. At the height of Mamluk power, it extended over the whole of Syria as far as the middle Euphrates. After the fall of Baghdad in 1258, the Mamluks sheltered one of the Abbasid princes in Cairo and formally acknowledged him as sovereign. The Abbasid Caliph at Cairo was acknowledged by the Delhi Sultanate and recognised by the Sharifs of Makkah and Medina. His presence in Cairo conferred a legitimacy and prestige to the Mamluk Sultans. This branch of the Abbasid caliphs continued in Egypt till CE1538.

NOTED RULERS

Sayf ad-Din Qutuz               1259-1260

Rukn al-Din Baybars-I        1260-1277

Nasir al-Din Berks Khan    1277-1279

Sayial Din Qilawan              1279-1290

Salah al-Din Muhammad   1290-1293

Nasir al-Din Muhammad   1293-1294

Zain al-Din Ketbogha          1294-1296

Husam al-Din Lachin         1296-1299

Nasir al-Din Muhammad   1299-1299 (2nd term)

Rukn al-Din Baybars-II      1299-1310 (Burji Mamluk)

Nasir al-Din Muhammad   1310-1341 (3rd term)

Saif al-Din Abu Bakr           1341-1341

Ala al-Din Kuchak               1341-1342

Shihab al-Din Ahmad         1342-1343

Imad al-Din Ismail              1343-1345

Saif al-Din Shaban-I            1345-1347

Saif al-Din Haji-I                 1347-1347

Nasir al-Din al-Hasan         1347-1351

Salah al-Din Salih                1351-1354

Nasir al-Din al-Hasan         1354-1361 (2nd term)

Salah al-Din Muhammad   1361-1362

Nasir al-Din al-Shaban       1362-1376

Ala al-Din Ali                        1376-1381

Saif al-Din Haji-II                1381-1382

BURJI (MAMLUKS) DYNASTY (Egypt)       – 1382-1517

The supremacy of the Bahri Mamluks finally came to an end after a long period of disorder in 1390. They were replaced by another series of Mamluk rulers, called the Burji (or Circassian) sultans because the regiments which supported them were stationed in barracks near a tower (burj) and had adopted the Turkish language and customs. Barquqe, the founder of the Burji regime, was a forceful ruler, who won a bitter struggle against his rivals (1389-92) and extended his authority over Syria. Egypt then went through an unsettled period, during which in 1412, an attempt was made to instal one of the puppet Abbasid Caliphs as ruler. Things were unstable until Barsbal (1422-1438) ascended the throne. He was the ablest general among the Burji Sultans. His victories in Cyprus in 1426 and against the “White Sheep” Turcomans and other princelings in Syria and Mesopotamia of Egypt back on the map. Few among the Sultans after him possessed his military abilities. The Mamluks spent large sums on building ostentatious tombs, which still stand near Cairo. However, there was a pious and frugal Sultan Chaqmaq, who spent lavishly only to support learned men. The later Mamluk sultans were unable to adopt any definite foreign policy or strategy, therefore, their influence dwindled and they were pushed back by the “White Sheep” Torcomans and later the Ottoman Turks. Their fortunes declined greatly during the reign of Qansuh II al-Ghuri. Thus, Ottoman Sultan Selim-I overran the Mamluk forces near Aleppo in 1516 and ultimately put an end to the Burji dynasty in January 1517, with his subsequent capture in Cairo. 

NOTED RULERS

Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq                                      1382-1389

Hajji II second reign (Bahri dynasty)                   1389

Zahir Sayf ad-Din Barquq                                      1390-1399 (2nd term)

Nasir Nasir-ad-Din Faraj                                       1399-1405

Mansur Izz-ad-Din Abd-al-Aziz                             1405

Nasir Nasir-ad-Din Faraj                                        1405-1412 (2nd term)

Adil al-Mustain                                                        1412

(Abbasid Caliph in Cairo, proclaimed Sultan)   

Muayyad Sayf-ad-Din Tatar                                   1412-1421

Muzaffar Ahmad                                                      1421

Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Tatar                                          1421

Salih Nasir-ad-Din Muhammad                            1421-1422

Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Barsbay                                   1422-1437

Aziz Jamal-ad-Din Yusuf                                        1437-1438

Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Jaqmaq                                     1438-1453

Mansur Fakhr-ad-Din Uthman                             1453

Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Inal                                          1453-1461

Muayyad Shihab-ad-Din Ahmad                          1461

-*Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Khushqadam                                    1461-1467

Zahir Sayf-ad-Din Bilbay                                        1467

Zahir Timurbugha                                                   1467-1468

Ashraf Sayf-ad-Din Qait Bay                                  1468-1496

Nasir Muhammad                                                   1496-1498

Zahir Qansuh                                                           1498-1500

Ashraf Janbalat                                                        1500-1501

Adil Sayf-ad-Din Tuman Bay                                 1501

Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri                                       1501-1516

Ashraf Tuman Bay                                                   1516

KHEDIVE DYNASTY-EGYPT (1805-1952)

Muhammad Ali                                1805-1848 (Pasha)

Ibrahim                                             1848

Abbas Hilmi I                                   1848-1854

Muhammad Said                             1854-1863

Ismail                                                 1863-1879 (Khedive, 1867-79)                              
Muhammad Tawfiq                         1879-1892

Abbas Hilmi II                                  1892-1914
Hussain Kamil                                 1914-1917 (Sultan)

Ahmad Fuad I                                   1917-1936 (King, 1922-1936)

Faruq                                                 1936-1952,

Ahmad Fuad II                                 1952-1953

[Republic of Egypt, 1953-]

Muhammad Naguib                        1953-1954 (President)

Gamal Abdel Nasser                        1954-1970

Anwar as-Sadat                                1970-1981

Mohammed Hosni Mubarak         1981-2012

Muhammad Mursi                          2012-2013

Abdel Fattah El-Sisi                        Since 2014

ALMORAVIDS (1061-1147)

In the middle of the 11th century, an Islamic social, religious and economic reform movement began to spread among the Sanhajan, a clan of the Berber tribes. Around 1056 under Yusuf ibn Tashfin, it acquired political importance. Along with his wife Zaynab, he founded the city of Marrakesh in 1062 and he ruled over Morocco and Algeria till 1083. His followers then moved south to spread Islam among the people of West Africa. Answering an appeal from Spanish Muslims, he sent his troops there and helped defeat the Castilians in 1086. Thereafter he governed Spain directly. His followers known as al-Murabitun from Ribat (Hermitage) were called Almoravides in Spanish. After his death in 1106, during the reign of his son, Ali, control of their territories passed to an ultra-orthodox Islamic party. This triggered off another religious agitation.

NOTED RULERS

Yusuf bin Tashfin                            1061-1107

Ali bin Yusuf Tashfin                      1107-1143

Tashfin bin Ali                                  1143-1147

ALMOHADS (1130-1269)

The religious persecution of the Almoravides was opposed by a reformist sect of the Berbers. This movement was started by Muhammad ibn Tumart (d. 1128) whose followers professed the unity of God (Tawhid). They were therefore called al-Muwahhidun (Almohades in Spanish). The movement, started in the Moroccan Atlas region, was extended greatly by early 12th century. After the death of the last Almoravide ruler, Tashfin bin Ali, in 1143, they gained control over the entire North Africa. Meanwhile, Muslim Spain once again split into a number of smaller states. In 1147, under Abd al-Mumin, the Almohades crossed into Spain and within six years captured Spain’s principal Muslim cities, Cordova, Almeria and Granada. Tunis was added to their empire in 1163. They continued to rule until their defeat at the hands of the Christians in 1212 at Hisn al-Ugab. Their influence began declining thereafter, especially after the rise of another Berber dynasty in Morocco––the Marinids. In 1275, there were finally defeated.

NOTED RULERS

Abd al-Mumin                     1145-1163

Abu Yaqub Yusuf-I              1163-1184

Yaqub al-Mansoor               1184-1199

Muhammad al-Nasir          1199-1214

Abu Yaqub Yusuf II              1213-1224

Abd al-Wahid I                     1224

Abdallah                                1224-1227

Yahya                                     1227-1235

Idris I                                     1227-1232

Abdul-Wahid II                    1232-1242

Ali                                           1242-1248

Umar                                      1248-1266

Idris II                                    1266-1269

MARINIDS (1195-1470)

Three dynasties arose after the fall of the Almohades. They were Banu Mareen (Marinids), Banu Hafas (Hafsids) and Banu Abdul Wad (Watasi). Marinids largely concentrated in the present day Morocco.

NOTED RULERS

Abdalhaqq I                          1195-1217

Uthman I                               1217-1240

Muhammad I                       1240-1244

Abu Yahya Abu Bakr           1244-1258

Umar                                      1258-1259

Abu Yusuf Yaqub                 1259-1286     

Abu Yaqub Yusuf                 1286-1306

Abu Thabit                            1307-1308

Abu l-Rabia                           1308-1310

Abu Said Uthman II            1310-1331

Abu al-Hasan ‘Ali                 1331-1348

Abu Inan Faris                      1348-1358

Muhammad II as Said         1358-1359

Abu Salim Ali II                    1359-1361

Abu Umar Taschufin                        1361-1362

Abu Zayyan Muhammad III           1362-1366

Abu l-Fariz Abdul Aziz I      1366-1372

Abu l-Abbas Ahmad                        1372-1374

Abu Zayyan Muhammad IV           1384-1386

Muhammad V                                  1386-1387

Abu l-Abbas Ahmad                        1387-1393

Abdul Aziz II                                     1393-1398

Abdullah                                1398-1399

Abu Sayeed Uthman III      1399-1420

Abdalhaqq II                         1420-1465

The Watasi dynasty capture the throne after the rule of Abdullah in 1470. But in 1550, Saadi Shurfa overthrew them.

HAFASIDS (1228-1569)

The rule by the Hafasids was interrupted twice by the Marinids in 1348-50 and 1352-58.

NOTED RULERS

Abu Zakariya                        1229-1249

Muhammad I al-Mustansir            1249-1277

Yahya II al-Watiq                 1277-1279

Ibrahim I                               1279-1283

Ibn Abi Umara                      1283-1284

Abu Hafs Umar I                  1284-1295

Abu Bakr II                           1318-1346

Ishaq II                                  1350-1369

Abu al-Abbas Ahmad II      1370-1394

Abd al-Aziz II                        1394-1434

Uthman                                 1435-1488

THE SAADI-Morocco (1544-1658)

After the fall of Banu Mareen, Shareef Muhammad became the ruler. This was the beginning of the Saadi dynasty, also called the Sharifi dynasty.

NOTED RULERS

Mohammed I                                                1554–1557

Abdallah al-Ghalib                                     1557–1574

Abu Abdallah Mohammed II                     1574–1576

Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik I           1576–1578

Ahmad I al-Mansur                         1578–1603

Abdul Abdallah Mohammed III    1603–1607

Zaidan Al Nasir                                 1607–1628

Abu Marwan Abd al-Malik II         1628–1631

Al-Walid                                            1631–1636

Mohammed IV                                 1636–1654

Ahmad II                                           1654–1659

FULALI SHURFA DYNASTY-MOROCCO (1664-1727)

The Alawid Sharifs, Sultans & Kings of Morocco

Muhammad ash-Sharif                  1631-1659

Muhammad I                                   1635-1664

Ar-Rashid                                          1666-1672

Ismail Sultan                                    1672-1727

Ahmad                                               1727-1728, 1728-1729

Abd al-Malik                                     1728

AbdAllâh                                           1729-34, 1736, 1740-41, 1741-42, 1743-47, 1748-57

Ali                                                       1734-1736

Muh.ammad II                                 1736-1738

Al-Mustadi                                        1738-1740, 1742-1743, 1747-1748

Zayn al-Abidin                                 1741

Muhammad III                                1757-1790

Yazid                                                  1790-1792

Hisham                                              1792-1798

Sulayman                                          1798-1822

Abd ar-Rahman                               1822-1859

Muhammad IV                                 1859-1873

Al-Hasan I                                         1873-1894

Abd al-Aziz                                        1894-1908

Abd al-Hafiz                                      1908-1912

Yusuf                                                  1912-1927

Muhammad V                                  1927-1953, 1955-1957, King, 1957-1961

Muhammad VI                                 1953-1955

Al-Hasan II                                       1961-1999

Muhammad VII                               1999-present

THE MANSAS – Mali (1230-1545)

Partial list of mansas of the Mali Empire

Sundiata Keita                                  1240-1255

Wali Keita                                          1255-1270

Ouati Keita                                        1270-1274

Khalifa Keita                                     1274-1275

Abu Bakr                                           1275-1285

Sakura                                                1285-1300

Gao                                                     1300-1305

Mohammed ibn Gao                       1305-1310

Abubakari II                                      1310-1312

Kankan Musa I                                 1312-1337

Maghan                                              1337-1341

Suleyman                                          1341-1360

Kassa                                                 1360-1360

Mari Diata II                                     1360-1374

Musa II                                              1374-1387

Magha II                                            1387-1389

Sandaki                                              1389-1390

Mahmud                                            1390-1400

Unknown Mansas                            1400-1546

HUSSAIN DYNASTY-TUNISIA (1705-1957)

The Husaynid Beys of Tunisia

Husayn I                                1705-1735

Ali I                                         1735-1756

Muhammad I                       1756-1759

Ali II                                       1759-1782

Hamuda                                1782-1814

Othman                                 1814

Mahmud                               1814-1824

Husayn II                              1824-1835

Mustafa                                 1835-1837

Ahmad I                                 1837-1855

Muhammad II                      1855-1859

Muhammad III as-Sadiq    1859-1882

Ali III                                     1882-1902

Muhammad IV                     1902-1906

Muhammad V                      1906-1922

Muhammad VI al-Habib    1922-1929

Ahmad II                               1929-1942

Muhammad VII al-Munsif 1942-1943

Muhammad VIII                  1943-1957

Rashad al-Mahdi                 1957 (King)

Tunisia becomes republic  1957-present

FULANI DYNASTY-NIGERIA (1804-1938)

The “Sokoto Caliph” was the ruler of the Sokoto Caliphate. The official title is Sultan of Sokoto and includes the style “Amir-ul-Momineen“. The post has become increasingly ceremonial since British rule, but the Sultan, considered a spiritual leader in the Muslim community in Nigeria, can still carry a lot of weight with Fulani and Hausa people from northern Nigeria. Shaihu Usman dan Fodio (b. 1754 – d. 20 April 1817), the founder of the dynasty of Sokoto State and of the Fulani Empire (consisting of the Fulbe Jihad states of which Sokoto was suzerain), never used the high style of Sultan (his son was the first to do so), but was simply titled Amir al-Mu´minin, also styled Lamido Julbe (a corruption of ‘Emir of the Fulbe’).

List of Sultans

As mentioned above, the Sultans were also styled Amir al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi (“King of the Muslims”, basically the autochthonous form of the former, which is the Arabic style of Caliphs and other independent sovereign Muslim rulers that claim legitimacy from a community of Muslims); Mai, occurring in various Sultans’ surnames, is another autochthonous title

Imam Usman dan Fodio                             1804-1815

Muhammed Bello                                        1815-1837

Abu Bakr Atiku                                            1837-1842 

Aliyu Baba dan Bello ‘Mai Cinaka’             1842–1859 

Ahmad bin Atiku I dan `Usuman             1859–1866

Ali bin Bello II                                              1866–1867

Ahmad Rufa’I                                               1867–1873

Abu Bakr bin Bello                                      1873-1877

Mu’adh bin Bello                                          1877–1881

Umar bin Ali                                                 1881–1891

Abd ar-Rahman dan Abi Bakar                 1891–1902 

Muhammadu Attahiru I dan Ahmadu                 1902–1903

Muhammadu Attahiru II dan Aliyu Baba            1903–1915 

Muhammadu dan Ahmadu “Mai Turare”            1915–1924

Muhammadu dan Muhammadu “Tambari”       1924-1931

Hasan dan Mu’azu Ahmadu                                   1931–1938

Abubakar dan `Usuman as-Siddiq                       1938–1988

Ibrahim Dasuki dan Khaliru                                  1988–1996

Muhammadu Maccido dan Abubakar                  1996–2006

Muhammed Sa’adu Abubakar                               Since 2 November 2006–till date

SAYEEDI DYNASTY-ZANZIBAR (1806-1911)

Salim ibn Sultan                              1806-1821

Said ibn Sultan                                 1806-1856

Majid ibn Said                                  1856-1870

Barghash ibn Said                            1870-1888

Khalifa ibn Barghash                      1888-1890

Ali ibn Said                                        1890-1893

Hamid ibn Thuwayni                      1893-1896

Hammud ibn Muhammad             1896-1902

Ali ibn Hammud                              1902-1911

Khalifa ibn Kharub                          1911-1960     

Abdallah ibn Khalifa                       1960-1963

Jamshid ibn Abdallah                     1963-1964

SELJUKS-RUM, ANATOLIA (1077-1313)

Seljuk Sultans of Rum (Anatolia)              1077-1307

Kutalmish                                                     1060-1077

Süleyman Ibn Kutalmish (Suleiman)       1077-1086

Dawud Kilij Arslan I                                    1092-1107

Malik Shah                                                    1107-1116

Rukn ad-Din Mas’ud                                   1116-1156

Izz ad-Din Kilij Arslan II                             1156-1192

Ghiyath ad-Din Kay Khusrau I                  1192-1196

Süleyman II (Suleiman)                             1196-1204

Kilij Arslan III                                               1204-1205

Ghiyath ad-Din Kay Khusrau I                  1205-1211 (2nd term)

Izz ad-Din Kay Ka’us I                                 1211-1220

Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh I                            1220-1237

Ghiyath ad-Din Kay Khusrau II                 1237-1246

Izz ad-Din Kay Ka’us II                               1246-1260

Rukn ad-Din Kilij Arslan IV                       1248-1265

Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh II                          1249-1257

Ghiyath ad-Din Kay Khusrau II                 1257-1259 (2nd term)

Ghiyath ad-Din Kay Khusrau III               1265-1282

Ghiyath ad-Din Mas’ud II                           1282-1284

Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh III                         1284

Ghiyath ad-Din Mas’ud II                          1284-1293 (2nd term)

Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh III                        1293-1294 (2nd term)

Ghiyath ad-Din Mas’ud II                           1294-1301 (3rd term)

Ala ad-Din Kay Qubadh III                        1301-1303 (3rd term)

Ghiyath ad-Din Mas’ud II                           1303-1307 (4th term)

Ghiyath ad-Din Mas’ud III                         1307

OTTOMAN CALIPHATE – Turkey (1299-1924)

Othman, a descendant of Ertoghrul and founder of the empire, belonged to a clan of the Ghuzz Turks. Thus the dynasty was called Ottomans or Othmanis. Western Anatolia was under the clan when in 1357 it began a series of conquests, which brought Macedonia, Serbia and Bulgaria under its control. Bayazid-I acquired the title of sultan from the Abbasid caliph at Cairo. Taimur checked the ascent of the Ottomans in CE1402. With Muhammad-II’s conquest of Constantinople in 1453, the golden era of the Ottomans began. In 1517, Selim-I conquered Egypt, ending the Abbasid dynasty. The Ottoman Empire reached its zenith during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, whose reign saw great achievement in the military, administration, social institutions and architecture. Istanbul became one of the world’s great cities. In 1571, the Turks lost control of the western Mediterranean to the European powers in a sea battle at Icpanto. With the Portuguese and Russian already making inroads against the Turks and after the second siege of Vienna failed in 1683, the Turks began to decline. During World War-I the Ottomans fought along with Germany and the Austro-Hungary empires but were defeated by the Allies. The republic was proclaimed, the Sultanate was abolished in 1922 and the Caliphate in CE1924.

ARCHITECTS OF THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE

Osman (1259-1326)           The founder of the Ottoman Empire.

Murat I (1319-1389)           Osman’s son; captured Thrace in 1363 and by 1369;

conquered Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Serbia. 

Murat II (1403-1451)         Succeeded his father, Mehmet I, in 1421; continued the

expansionist policy of the Ottomans, waged a series of campaigns against Hungary.

Mehmet II                           Defeated the last remaining Christian princes south of the

Danubeand captured Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1453 and Anatolia as far as the Euphrates.

Bayazid II                           Ended the policy of conquests.

Selim I                                  Incorporated into the Ottoman Empire the heartland of the old Islamic caliphates.

Suleiman I

the Magnificent                Expanded the Ottoman expansion by conquering Hungary;

besieged Vienna in 1529; conquered the remainder of Anatolia and the old Abbasid and Seljuk centre in Iraq.

NOTED SULTANS

Osman Gazi               1299-1326
Orhan Gazi                1324/26-60
Murat I                       1360-89
Yildirim Bayazid I    1389-1402
Mehmet I                   1413-21
Murat II                      1421-44 and 1446-51
Fatih Mehmet II       1444-46 and 1451-81
Beyazid II                   1481-1512
Yavuz Selim I            1512-20
Suleyman I                1520-66
Selim II                       1566-74
Murad III                   1574-95
Mehmet III                1595-1603
Ahmed I                                 1603-17
Mustafa I                   1617-18 and 1622-23
Genc Osman II         1618-22
Murad IV                   1623-40
Ibrahim                      1640-48
Avci Mehmed IV       1648-87
Suleyman II               1687-91
Ahmed II                    1691-95
Avci Mehmed V        1648-87
Suleyman III             1687-91
Ahmed II                    1691-95
Mustafa II                  1695-1703
Ahmed III                  1703-30
Mahmud I                  1730-54
Osman III                  1754-57
Mustafa III                1757-74
Abdulhamid I            1774-89
Selim III                     1789-1807
Mustafa IV                 1807-08
Mahmud II                1808-39
Abdulmecit                1839-61
Abdulaziz                   1861-76
Murad V                     1876
Abdulhamid II          1876-1909
Mehmed V                 1909-18
Vahdettin VI             1918-22

THE DELHI SULTANATE – India (1206-1526)

Muhammad Shahabuddin of Ghor (Afghanistan), better known as Muhammad Ghori, conquered Multan and Punjab in 1175. He advanced towards Delhi in 1191, and was defeated by Prithvi Raj Chauhan in the first Battle of Tarain. In abour a year, the same rivals met again at the same place. The Second Battle of Tarain (1192) paved the way for Turkish rule in northern India. However, Muhammad Ghori died in 1206, before consolidating his gains. He was succeeded by his former slave Qutubuddin who completed his work. The period from 1206 till the coming of Mughals in 1526, is known as the Delhi Sultanate, since the rule was based in Delhi and the rulers called Sultans. The Sultanate continued for more than 300 years and during this period five dynasties and 32 sultans, including a woman Sultan, ruled over a great part of northern India.

NOTED SULTANS

Qutb-ud-din Aybak                         1206-1210

Aram Shah                                        1210-1211

Shams-ud-din Iltutmish                 1211-1236

Rukn-ud-din Firuz                          1236

Raziyyat ud din Sultana                  1236-1240

Muiz-ud-din Bahram                      1240-1242

Ala-ud-din Masud                            1242-1246

Nasir-ud-din Mahmud                   1246-1266

Ghiyas-ud-din Balban                     1266-1286

Muiz-ud-din Qaiqabad                   1286-1290

THE KHILJIS

Jalal al-Din Firuz Khilji (1290-1296), founder of the Khilji dynasty, defeated some invading Mongol armies. Alaud Din Khilji (1296-1316), considered the greatest of the Delhi Sultans, unified India and defeated a number of invading Mongol armies. Qutb al-Din Mubarak Shah (1316-1320), the Delhi Sultanate had shrunk during his reign. Invasion of Timur in 1398 and the end of the Tughluq Dynasty as known earlier.

NOTED RULERS

Jalal al-Din Firuz Khilji                  1290-1296

Alaud Din Khilji                               1296-1316

Qutb al-Din Mubarak Shah            1316-1320

THE TUGHLAQS

Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq                  1321-1325

Muhammad bin Tughluq               1325-1351

Firuz Shah Tughluq                        1351-1388

Ghiyath al-Din Tughlaq II              1388-1389

Abu Baker                                         1389-1390

Nasir al-Din Muhammad               1390-1394

Mahmud Nasir al-Din                     1394-1413

(Sultan Mahmud)

Nusrat Shah at Firuzabad

THE SAYYIDS

Khizr                                                  1414-1421

Mubarik II                                         1421-1434

Muhamed IV                                     1434-1445

Alem I                                                1445-1451

THE LODIS

Bahlul Khan Lodi                           1451-1489

Sikandar Lodi                                   1489-1517

Ibrahim Lodi                                    1517-1526

defeated by Babur (who replaces the Delhi Sultanate with the Mughal Empire)

MUGHAL EMPIRE

Babar, a descendant of Timur, founded the Mughal Empire in India. At 11, ascended the throne in Ferghana in Transoxiana and by 14 he had conquered Samarkand. The Uzbeks seized both Ferghana and Samarkand following, which he captured Kandhar. In 1526, he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi, in the Battle of Panipat. He made Agra his capital. His son and successor, had to fight for power with his brothers and Sher Shah, an Afghan prince, who dethroned him for a while. His son Akbar succeeded him and he consolidated and extended the empire to cover most of northern India and parts of Afghanistan. His son Jehangir followed and then came his son shah Jehan. Shah Jehan built the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid in Delhi and the Taj Mahal in Agra, among other buildings. Aurangzeb, Shah Jehan’s successor, was the last of the great Mughals and under him, the empire reached its zenith. Yet, it was during Auranzeb’s reign that the decline of the empire began.

The last Mughal emperor was Bahadur Shah-II whose reign ended in 1858, after the revolt of 1857. But the empire had long began to weaken. The Mughal rule was noted for its cultural excellence, for its blending of Persian and Indian elements. It was in fact one of the most sophisticated civilisations ever known and its architecture, music, literature and cuisine are known even today.

THE MUGHAL RULERS

Babur                                                 1526-1530

Humayun                                          1530-1540 [Interregnum 1540-1555]

Humayun                                          1555-1556

Akbar                                                 1556-1605

Jahangir                                            1605-1627

Shah Jahan                                       1627-1658

Aurangzeb                                         1658-1707

Bahadur Shah I (Shah Alam I)      1707-1712

Jahandar Shah                                 1712-1713

Furrukhsiyar                                    1713-1719

Rafi ul-Darjat                                   1719-1719

Rafi ud-Daulat (Shah Jahan II)     1719-1719

Nikusiyar                                          1719-1720

Mohammed Ibrahim                      1720-1720

Mohammed Shah (2nd term)        1720-1748

Ahmad Shah Bahadur                    1748-1754

Alamgir II                                          1754-1759

Shah Jahan III                                  1760-1760

Shah Alam II                                     1759-1806

Akbar Shah II                                   1806-1837

Bahadur Shah II                               1837-1857

(aka Bahadur Shah Zafar)

MIR DYNASTY – Kashmir (1339-1540)

CHAK DYNASTY – Kashmir (1563-1587)

GHORIS – Malwa (1392-1436)

KHILJIS – Malwa (1436-1530)

SHARQI DYNASTY – Jaunpur, India (1394-1476)

MUZAFFAR SHAHI DYNASTY – Gujarat (1396-1572)

The Muzaffarid dynasty were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. The founder of the dynasty was Zafar Khan Muzaffar (later Muzaffar Shah I) who was governor of Gujarat under the Delhi Sultanate. Zafar Khan’s father was a Rajput convert to Islam. When the Sultanate was weakened by the sacking of Delhi by Timur in 1398, and Zafar Khan took the opportunity to establish himself as sultan of an independent Gujarat. His son, Ahmed Shah I established the capital at Ahmedabad. The dynasty ruled for almost 200 years, until the conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Empire. The sultanate reached its peak of expansion under Mahmud Shah I Begara, reaching east into Malwa and west to the Gulf of Kutch.

During the Muzaffarid rule, Ahmedabad grew to become one of the largest and wealthiest cities in the world, and the sultans were patrons of a distinctive architecture that blended Islamic elements with Gujarat’s indigenous Hindu and Jain architectural traditions. Gujarat’s Islamic architecture presages many of the architectural elements later found in Mughal architecture, including ornate mihrabs and minarets, perforated screens (jali) carved in stone, and pavilions topped with cupolas (chattri).

NOTED MUZAFFARID SULTANS OF GUJARAT

Muzaffar Shah I                                1391-1403

Tatar Mohammed I Shah               1403-1407

Muzaffar Shah I (restored)             1407-1411

Ahmed Shah I                                   1411-1442

Mohammed II Karim Shah            1442-1451

Qutb ud-Din Ahmed Shah II          1451-1458

Da’ud Shah                                        1458

Mahmud Shah I Begara                  1458-1511

Muzaffar Shah II                              1511-1526

Sikandar Shah                                  1526

Nasr Khan Mahmud II                    1526

Bahadur Shah                                   1526-1535

to the Mughal Empire                     1535-1536

Bahadur Shah (restored)                1536-1537

Miran Mohammed                          1537

Mahmud Shah III                            1537-1554

Ahmed Shah III                                1554-1561

Muzaffar Shah III                             1561-1573

to the Mughal Empire                     1573-1583

Muzaffar Shah III (restored)          1583

to the Mughal Empire                     1583-1734

BAHMANI KINGDOM – Deccan  (1347-1527)

The Deccan, in the south of India, came under control of the Delhi Sultanate during the reign of Alauddin Khilji, but during the time of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, it was separated into two new states, the Bahmani and Vijaynagar kingdoms. Alauddin Hasan Gunju founded the Bahmani Kingdom in the Deccan in 1347. Its capital, which was at Gulbarga, was shifted to Bedar later.

BAHMANI RULERS

Ala ud din Bahman Shah                1347-1358, establishes capital at Gulbarga

Muhammad Shah I                          1358-1375

Ala ud din Mujahid Shah                1375-1378

Daud Shah I                                      1378-1378

Muhammad Shah II                        1378-1397

Ghiyas ud din Tahmatan Shah      1397-1397

Shams ud din Daud Shah II           1397-1397

Taj ud din Feroz Shah                     1397-1422

Shahab ud din Ahmad Shah I        1422-1435 establishes capital at Bidar

Ala ud din Ahmad Shah II              1436-1458

Ala ud din Humayun Shah             1458-1461

Nizam ud din Ahmad Shah III       1461-1463

Shamsuddin Muhammad Shah III 1463-1482

Mahmud Shah                                  1482-1518

Ahmad Shah IV                                1518-1521

Ala ud din Shah                                1521-1522

Waliullah Shah                                 1522-1524

Kalimullah Shah                              1524-1527

ADIL SHAHI-Bijapur                            (1489-1685)

Yusuf Adil Shah                                            1490-1510

Ismail Adil Shah                                           1510-1534

Mallu Adil Shah                                           1534-1534

Ibrahim Adil Shah I                                     1534-1558

Ali Adil Shah I                                              1558-1580

Ibrahim Adil Shah II                                  1580-1627

Mohammed Adil Shah                                1627-1657

Ali Adil Shah II                                             1657-1672

Sikandar Adil Shah                                      1672-1686

NIZAM SHAHI – Ahmadnagar          (1490-1633)

The Nizam Shahi dynasty of Ahmadnagar was established in 1490 by Malik Ahmad Shah. The kingdom lay in the northwestern Deccan, between the states of Gujarat and Bijapur. It secured the great fortress of Daulatabad in 1499 and added Berar in 1574.

NIZAM SHAHI RULERS

Malik Ahmad Shah I                                    1490-1509

Burhan Shah I                                              1509-1553

Husain Shah I                                               1553-1565

Murtaza Shah                                               1565-1588

Miran Husain                                               1588-1589

Isma’il Shah                                                  1589-1591

Burhan Shah II                                             1591-1595

Ibrahim Shah                                               1595-1596

Ahmad Shah II                                             1596-1596

Bahadur Shah                                               1596-1600

Murtaza Shah II                                           1600-1610

Burhan Shah III                                           1610-1631

Husain Shah II                                             1631-1633

QUTB SHAHIS-GOLKUNDA (1518-1865)

Sultan Quli Qutb Mulk                               1518-1543

Jamsheed Quli Qutb Shah                         1543-1550

Subhan Quli Qutb Shah                              1550-1550

Ibrahim Quli Qutub Shah                           1550-1580

Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah                      1580-1612

Sultan Muhammad Qutb Shah                  1612-1626

Abdullah Qutb Shah                                    1626-1672

Abul Hasan Qutb Shah                               1672-1687

SURI DYNASTY (1540-1555)

Sher Shah was the founder of the Suri dynasty. He belonged to a Pathan tribe of Sur. A brilliant general and administrator, Sher Shah began his career as governor of Bihar and rose to become the emperor of India, overthrowing Humayun, the Mughal emperor. His family ruled till 1555.

SURI RULERS

Sher Shah Suri                                             1540-1545

Islam Shah Suri                                            1545-1553

Firuz Shah Suri

Muhammad Shah Adil

Ibrahim Shah Suri

Sikandar Shah Suri

Adil Shah Suri

ISKANDAR SHAH DYNASTY – Indonesia (1403-1511)

PATEH HALLA DYNASTY – Batan (1526-1687)

ALI MUGHAYT SYAH DYNASTY (1496-1903)

Aachia state came into existence after the decline of the Samudr Parai state situated in the north western part of Sumatra, it was founded by Ali Maghait Shah. It lasted for over 400 years.

Ali Maghait Shah                                         1496-1530

Saladin                                                           1530-1539

Aladdin I. Riayat Syah al-Qahhar             1539-1571

Husain Ali Riayat Syah                               1571-1579

Muda                                                              1579

Zainul Abidin                                               1579

Sri Alam                                                         1579

Aladdin II. Mansur Syah                            1579-1585/6

Buyong                                                          1585/6-1589

Ri’ayat Syah al-Mukammal                        1589-1604

Ali II.                                                              1604-1607

Iskandar I. Muda                                         1607-1636

Iskandar II. Thani Ala                                 1636-1641

Safiyat ud-Din Taj al-Alam bint                1641-1675

Iskandar Muda

Naqiyat ud-Din Nur al-Alam                     1675-1678

Zaqiyat ud-Din Inayat Shah                       1678-1688

Kamalat Shah Zinat ud-Din                       1688-1699

Badr                                                                1699-1702

Perkara Alam                                                1702-1703

Djamal                                                           1703-1726

Djawhar                                                         1726

Shams                                                            1726-1727

Aladdin III. Ahmad                                     1727-1735

Aladdin IV. Shah Jahan                              1735-1760

Mahmud Shah I.                                          1760-1781

Badruddin                                                     1764-1785

Sulayman Shah I.                                         1775-1781

Aladdin V. Muhammad                              1781-1795

Aladdin VI. Djawhar                                    1795-1815 + 1824

Sharif Saif                                                      1815-1818

Aladdin VI. Djawhar                                    1818-1824

Muhammad I. Shah                                     1824-1838

Sulayman Shah II.                                       1838-1857

Mansur Shah                                                1857-1870

Mahmud Shah II.                                         1870-1874

Muhammad II. Daoud Shah                      1874-1903

THE SANUPATI SULTANATE

Mataram, the biggest and most famous Muslims state in Java, was founded by Sanupati. He was the army commander in Demak and had scored victories in several areas of Java and adjoining islands. The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java (now a part of Indonesia) before the island was colonised by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force in interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century. The Sultanate of Mataram, an Islamic kingdom based in the region which existed between the 1570s and 1755 approximately with the borders of contemporary Yogyakartan and Surakartan administrative regions.

THE SANUPATI RULERS

Sanupati                                                        1586-1601

Panam Behan Karapeyak                           1601-1613

Sultan Uqang                                                1613-1645

Parabomiyang Kurat                                   1645-1677

Humang Kurat-II                                        1677-1703

Humang Kurat-III                                       1703-1705

Paku Budana-I                                             1705-1719

Humang Kurat-IV                                       1719-1725

Paku Budana-II                                            1725-1749

Paku Budana-III                                          1749-1755

UMAYYAD CALIPHATE – Spain (756-1030)

The Caliph of Córdoba ruled the Iberian peninsula (Al-Andalus) and North Africa from the city of Córdoba, from 929 to 1031. This period was characterised by remarkable success in trade and culture; many of the masterpieces of Islamic Spain were constructed in this period, including the famous Great Mosque of Córdoba. The title Caliph was claimed by Abd-ar-Rahman III on January 16, 929; he was previously known as the Emir of Córdoba. All Caliphs of Córdoba were members of the Umayyad dynasty; the same dynasty had held the title Emir of Córdoba and ruled over roughly the same territory since 756. The Caliph’s rule is known as the splendor of Muslim presence in the Iberian peninsula, although it was practically finished in 1010, with the fitna (or civil war) which started between descendants of the last legitimate Caliph Hisham II and the successors of his prime minister (or hayib) Almanzor. Furthermore, the Caliph’s Empire probably was exhausted by its expensive military efforts. However, the Caliph officially existed until 1031, when it was fractured into a number of independent taifas.

UMAYYAD EMIRS

Abd-ar-Rahman I                             756-788

Hisham I                                            788-796

al-Hakam I                                        796-822

Abd-ar-rahman II                            822-852

Muhammad I                                    852-886

al-Mundhir                                       886-888

Abdallah ibn Muhammad              888-912

Abd-ar-rahman III                           912-929

Abd-ar-Rahman III as caliph         929-961

Al-Hakam II                                      961-976

Hisham II                                          976-1008

Mohammed II                                 1008-1009

Suleiman                                           1009-1010

Hisham II, restored                         1010-1012

Suleiman, restored                          1012-1017

Abd-ar-Rahman IV                          1021-1022

Abd-ar-Rahman V                           1022-1023

Muhammad III                                 1023-1024

Hisham III                                        1027-1031

SULTANS OF OMAN

Ahmad ibn Said                                c. 1754-1783

Said ibn Ahmad                               1783-1786

Hamid ibn Said                                1786-1792

Sultan ibn Ahmad                           1792-1806

Salim ibn Sultan                              1806-1821

Said ibn Sultan                                 1806-1856

Thuwayni ibn Said                           1856-1866

Salim ibn Thuwayni                        1866-1868

Azzan ibn Qays                                 1868-1870

Turki ibn Said                                   1870-1888

Faysal ibn Turki                               1888-1913

Taymur ibn Faysal                           1913-1932

Said ibn Taymur                              1932-1970

[Independent, 1963; Sultan Overthrown in Coup, 1964]

BENGAL RULERS

Rule by the Sultanate

Amin Khan                                                                1271-1278

Tughril Khan (Sultan Mughis Uddin)                  1278-1282

Hashimuddin                                                           1282-  —                 

Nasiruddin Mahmud Bughra Khan                      1282-1289

Shamsuddin Firuz Shah                                         1301-1321

Shihabuddin Bughra Khan                                    1322-1324

Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah                                   1324-1225

Muhammad Shah Tughlaq                                     1325-1351

Mukhlis                                                                     1338-1341

Alauddin Ali Shah (Ali Mubarak)                        1341-1342

[Note: The governor of SonarGaon (Central Bengal) died and his guard Fakhr-ud-din Mubarak Khan takes over. He is attacked and defeated by another governor, Kadar Khan, but Kadar is killed by Fakhr’s supporters. Fakhr reconquers SonarGaon. He becomes ruler of most of Bengal (rules Sonargaon until 1350 … he heavily taxed the Hindus). He appointed Mukhlis in power at Laknauti (centre of power)].

ILIYAS SHAHI DYNASTY – Bengal (1342-1538)

SHAHI DYNASTY

Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah                                         1342-1358

Sikandar Shah                                                          1358-1390

Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah                                        1390-1410 (or 1396)

Sultan-us-salatin Saifuddin Hamza Shah            1410-1412 or 1396-405

Shihabuddin Bayazid Shah                                    1412-1414 or 1405-1415

Alauddin Firoz Shah                                               1414-1415

[Hindu rulers who converted to Islam]

Sultan Jalaluddin (Yadu)                                       1415-1431 or 33

Shamsuddin Ahmad Shah                                      1431/33-1435/37

SHAHI DYNASTY-II

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah                                     1435/37-1459

Ruknuddin Barbak Shah                                        1455-1476

Shamsuddin Yusuf Shah                                        1474-1481/83

Sultan Sikandar Shah II                                          1481/83

Jalaluddin Fateh Shah                                            1482-1487 or 1484

Khoja Barbak                                                            1487

ABYSSINIAN INTERLUDE

Saif-ud-din Firoz Shah                                            1487-1490

Nasiruddin Mahmud Shah II                                 1490

Shamsuddin Abu Nasir M. Shah                           1490-1493

HUSSAIN-SHAHI DYNASTY (1493-1538)

Alauddin Hussain Shah                                          1493-1519

Nasiruddin Nusrat Shah                                         1519-1533

Alauddin-Firuz-Shah                                              1533

Ghiasuddin Mahmud                                              1533-1538

(Last Hussain-Shahi ruler)

Muhammad Khan                                                   1538

Farid Khan (Shir Shah Sur) who became ruler of Bihar conquered Bengal. He appointed Muhammad Khan as governor. Gaur was ransacked. Humayun, son of Babur (Moghul ruler) took back Gaur in 1539 but lost it the next year.

Muhammad Shah                                                    1555

Ghiasuddin Bahadur Shah                                     1555-1560

Ghiasuddin Abul Muzaffar Jalal Shah                 1560-1563

KARRANI DYNASTY

Taj Khan Karrani                                                     1564-1566

Sulaiman (II) Khan Karrani                                   1565-1572

Bayazid Karrani                                                        1572

Daud Khan                                                                1574-75

SELJUK RULERS

Rulers of Seljuk Dynasty 1037-1157

Tugrul I (Tugrul Beg)                                              1037-1063

Alp Arslan bin Chaghri                                           1063-1072

Jalal ad-Dawlah Malik Shah I                                1072-1092

Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I                                         1092-1093

Rukn ad-Din Barkiyaruq                                        1093-1104

Mu’izz ad-Din Malik Shah II                                  1105

Ghiyasuddin Muhammad/Mehmed I Tapar       1105-1118

Mahmud II                                                                1118-1131

Mu’izz ad-Din Ahmed Sanjar                                 1131-1157

Seljuk Rulers of Kerman 1041-1187

Kerman was a nation in southern Persia. It fell in 1187, probably conquered by Toğrül III of Great Seljuk.

Qawurd                                                                      1041-1073

Kerman Shah                                                            1073-1074

Sultan Shah                                                              1074-1075

Hussain Omar                                                          1075-1084

Turan Shah I                                                             1084-1096

Iran Shah                                                                   1096-1101

Arslan Shah I                                                            1101-1142

Mehmed I (Muhammad)                                        1142-1156

Toğrül Shah                                                              1156-1169

Bahram Shah                                                            1169-1174

Arslan Shah II                                                           1174-1176

Turan Shah II                                                           1176-1183

Mehmed II (Muhammad)                                      1183-1187

Seljuk Rulers in Syria 1076-1117

Abu Sa’id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I                           1085-1086

Jalaluddaulah Malik Shah I of Great Seljuk        1086-1087

Qasimuddaula Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib     1087-1094

Abu Sa’id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (2nd term)        1094-1095

Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan                                           1095-1113

Tadj ad-Dawla Alp Arslan al-Akhras                    1113-1114

Sultan Shah                                                              1114-1123

 

Sultans/Emirs of Damascus

Aziz ibn Abaaq al-Khwarazmi                                1076-1079

Abu Sa’id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I                           1079-1095

Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq                        1095-1104

Tutush II                                                                   1104

Muhi ad-Din Baqtash                                              1104

Atabegs of Aleppo

Lulu                                                                            1114-1117

Shams al-Havas Yariqtash                                     1117

Imad ad-Din Zengi                                                  1128-1146

Nur ad-Din                                                                1146-1174

Leave a comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *